zijn

Dutch

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle DutchLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}.

, from Old DutchLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}.

. The infinitive

along with the words

and

(present indicative and subjunctive) derive ultimately from Proto-Indo-EuropeanLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}. *h₁es- (to be), which had no separate infinitive in Germanic. The modern infinitive was probably back-formed in late Old Dutch from the first-person plural subjunctive

(deprecated template usage) sīn (we be)

, since this form had become identical to the infinitive in other verbs during the late Old Dutch period. Compare also German

, Low German

. The original infinitive survives in

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, from Old DutchLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}.

, from Proto-GermanicLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}. *wesaną, from *h₂wes- (to reside). All the forms with initial w- (imperative and past tense) derive from this root. Finally, the forms

and

derive from Proto-GermanicLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}. *beuną (to be, to become), from *bʰuH- (to become), which survives only as relic forms in the West Germanic languages and not at all in the others. Its infinitive and non-singular forms are only attested in (Old) English.

Verb

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  1. To be, to exist.
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  2. Used to connect a noun to an adjective that describes it.
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  3. Used to form the perfect tense of the active voice of some verbs, together with a past participle.
    Note: The perfect tense of most other verbs is formed using hebben.
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  4. Used to form the perfect tense of the passive voice, together with a past participle.
    Note: The imperfect tense passive is formed using worden.
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  5. Used to form the continuous forms of various tenses, together with aan het.
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  6. To go, to go on a trip and return.
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  7. Used to indicate weather, temperature or some other general condition.
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  8. To equal; used to indicate that the values on either side of an equation are the same.
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  9. To have the next turn in a game.
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Conjugation
Inflection of zijn (irregular, suppletive)
infinitive zijn
past singular was
past participle geweest
infinitive zijn
gerund zijn n
present tense past tense
1st person singular ben was
2nd person sing. (jij) bent was
2nd person sing. (u) bent, is was
2nd person sing. (gij) zijt waart
3rd person singular is was
plural zijn waren
subjunctive sing.1 zij ware
subjunctive plur.1 zijn waren
imperative sing. wees, ben
imperative plur.1 weest, zijt
participles zijnd geweest
1) Archaic.
Synonyms
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Old DutchLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}.

(originally a reflexive form), from Proto-GermanicLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}. *sīnaz, from Proto-Indo-EuropeanLua error in Module:debug at line 174: This template is deprecated. Please use {{der}}, {{inh}}, {{bor}}, {{cog}} or {{noncog}}. *seyno-. Cognate with German

, Swedish

. Ultimately a form of the Proto-Indo-European reflexive pronoun *swe, related to Russian

, Latin

, Ancient Greek

etc.

Determiner

zijn (dependent possessive, independent possessive zijne, contracted form z'n)

  1. Third-person singular, masculine and neuter possessive pronoun: his, its.
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Declension