to

English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle English to (to), from Old English (to), from Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do (to). Cognate with Scots tae, to (to), North Frisian to, , tu (to), Saterland Frisian tou (to), Low German to (to), Dutch toe (to), German zu (to), West Frisian ta (to). Non-Germanic cognates include Albanian ndaj (towards), Irish do (to, for), Breton da (to, for), Welsh i (to, for), Russian до (do, to).

Pronunciation

  • (file)

Stressed

Unstressed

Particle

to

  1. A particle used for marking the following verb as an infinitive.
    I want to leave.
    He asked me what to do.
    I don’t know how to say it.
    I have places to go and people to see.
    • 1711, Alexander Pope:
      To err is human, to forgive divine.
    • c. 1600, William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Act 3, Scene 1:
      To be, or not to be: that is the question: / []
    • 2010 July, Associated Press, headline [1]:
      Odds are, BP to get new CEO this year
    • 2011 April 10, Alistair Magowan, “Aston Villa 1 - 0 Newcastle”, in BBC Sport[2]:
      To that end, the home supporters were in good voice to begin with, but it was Newcastle who started the game in the ascendancy, with Barton putting a diving header over the top from Jose Enrique's cross.
  2. As above, with the verb implied.
    "Did you visit the museum?" "I wanted to, but it was closed."
    If he hasn't read it yet, he ought to.
  3. A particle used to create phrasal verbs.
    I have to do laundry today.

Derived terms

Translations

Preposition

to

  1. Indicating destination: In the direction of, and arriving at.
    We are walking to the shop.
    • 2013 September 28, Kenan Malik, "London Is Special, but Not That Special," New York Times (retrieved 28 September 2013):
      Driven by a perceived political need to adopt a hard-line stance, Mr. Cameron’s coalition government has imposed myriad new restrictions, the aim of which is to reduce net migration to Britain to below 100,000.
  2. For the purpose of.
    He devoted himself to education.
    They drank to his health.
  3. Used to indicate result of action.
    His face was beaten to a pulp.
  4. Used after an adjective to indicate its application.
    similar to ..., relevant to ..., pertinent to ..., I was nice to him, he was cruel to her, I am used to walking.
  5. (obsolete) As a.
    With God to friend (with God as a friend);   with The Devil to fiend (with the Devil as a foe);   lambs slaughtered to lake (lambs slaughtered as a sacrifice);   took her to wife (took her as a wife);   was sold to slave (was sold as a slave).
  6. (arithmetic) Used to indicate a ratio or comparison.
    one to one = 1:1
    ten to one = 10:1.
    I have ten dollars to your four.
    • 2012 April 22, Sam Sheringham, “Liverpool 0-1 West Brom”, in BBC Sport[3]:
      In total, the Reds had 28 shots to their opponent's nine, and 15 corners to the Baggies' three.
  7. (arithmetic) Used to indicate that the preceding term is to be raised to the power of the following value; indicates exponentiation.
    Three squared or three to the second power is nine.
    Three to the power of two is nine.
    Three to the second is nine.
  8. Used to indicate the indirect object.
    I gave the book to him.
  9. (time) Preceding.
    ten to ten = 9:50; We're going to leave at ten to (the hour).
  10. Used to describe what something consists of or contains.
    Anyone could do this job; there's nothing to it.
    There's a lot of sense to what he says.
    The name has a nice ring to it.
  11. (Canada, Britain, Newfoundland, West Midlands) At.
    Stay where you're to and I'll come find you, b'y.

Usage notes

In the sense of "as a", it is a fossil word (Standard English only), found usually only in set phrases like: "to take a woman to wife", "to have someone to friend", "to have something to birthright" etc.. In northern dialects, where it is rare, but still in common use, it is often used in combination with with as in: an idiot with a whore to wife; a shrew with an asshole to man; a loser with shit to job; a ghetto girl with a shit hole to home.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

Adverb

to (not comparable)

  1. Toward a closed, touching or engaging position.
    Please push the door to.
  2. (nautical) Into the wind.
  3. Misspelling of too.

Synonyms

  • (toward a closed, touching or engaging position): closed, shut

Antonyms

  • (toward a closed, touching or engaging position): open, ajar

Translations

See also

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Spatial particles of orientation", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Anagrams


Abinomn

Noun

to

  1. sago (tree)

Asturian

Etymology

From Latin tuus.

Adjective

to

  1. your

Related terms


Babine-Witsuwit'en

Noun

to

  1. water

References

  • Sharon Hargus, Wisuwit’en Grammar: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology (2007), page 43

Babuza

Noun

to

  1. water

References

  • Naoyoshi Ogawa, English-Favorlang vocabulary (2003)
  • S. Tsuchida, A Comparative Vocabulary of Austronesian Languages of Sinicized Ethnic Groups in Taiwan, Part I: Western Taiwan, Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, No. 7 (1982)

Bahnar

Etymology

From Proto-Bahnaric *tɔʔ, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *tɔʔ. Cognates include Vietnamese đó, Khmer ដ៏ (dɑɑ).

Pronunciation

Pronoun

to

  1. that, there

Bambara

Noun

to

  1. stiff porridge

Catalan

Etymology

First attested 1575, borrowed from Latin tonus, from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos)[1]. Compare the doublet tro, inherited through a Vulgar Latin variant.

Pronunciation

Noun

to m (plural tons)

  1. (music) tone (specific pitch)
  2. (linguistics) tone (pitch of a word)
  3. tone or shade of a color

References


Czech

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈto]
  • (file)

Pronoun

to n

  1. it, this, that

Dalmatian

Etymology

From Latin tuus. Compare Italian tuo, Romanian tău, Friulian to, French ton, Spanish tu.

Pronoun

to m (feminine toa)

  1. your; second-person masculine singular possessive pronoun

See also


Danish

Danish cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : anden

Etymology 1

From Old Norse tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (two).

Pronunciation

Numeral

to

  1. two

Etymology 2

From Old Norse þvá (wash), from Proto-Germanic *þwahaną.

Pronunciation

Verb

to (imperative to, infinitive at to, present tense tor, past tense toede, perfect tense har toet)

  1. (dated) wash

Esperanto

Pronunciation

  • (file)

Noun

to (accusative singular to-on, plural to-oj, accusative plural to-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter T.

See also


Ewe

Noun

to

  1. antelope
  2. (anatomy) ear
  3. father-in-law
  4. mortar
  5. mountain

Verb

to

  1. to crush
  2. to pound

Finnish

Etymology

Abbreviation of torstai ("Thursday").

Pronunciation

Noun

to

  1. Thu (abbreviation of Thursday)

Friulian

Etymology

From Latin tuus.

Pronoun

to (second-person singular possessive of masculine singular, of feminine singular , of masculine plural tiei, of feminine plural tôs)

  1. (used attributively) your, thy; of yours, of thine
    che al sedi santifiât il to nom, che al vegni il to ream, — "Your kingdom come, your will be done," (third and fourth sentences of Lord's Prayer)
  2. (used predicatively) yours, thine
  3. (used substantively) yours, thine; the thing belonging to you/ thee

See also


Garifuna

Article

to

  1. feminine definite article
    Mutu toThe woman

Antonyms


Gonja

Noun

to

  1. language

References

  • Mary E. Kropp Dakubu, The Languages of Ghana

Hupa

Pronunciation

Noun

to

  1. a body of water, such as a lake or ocean

References

  • The Phonology of the Hupa Language, part 1: The Individual Sounds, volume 5, by Roland Burrage Dixon, Samuel Alfred Barrett, Washington Matthews, Bill Ray (using the older orthography "tō")
  • Victor Golla, Hupa Language Dictionary Second Edition (1996), page 105 (to)

Ido

Pronoun

to

  1. (demonstrative) this (thing)

Itene

Noun

to

  1. eye

References

  • Čestmír Loukotka, ‎Johannes Wilbert (editor), Classification of South American Indian Languages (1968, Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California), page(s) 162

Japanese

Romanization

to

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kongo

Conjunction

to

  1. or

Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai

Alternative forms

Noun

to

  1. water

References

  • Franz Boas, Pline Early Goddard, Vocabulary of an Athapascan dialect of the State of Washington, IJAL volume III, pages 39-45 (1924-1925)

Latvian

Pronoun

to

  1. that; accusative singular masculine form of tas
  2. with that; instrumental singular masculine form of tas
  3. of that; genitive plural masculine form of tas
  4. that; accusative singular feminine form of tas
  5. with that; instrumental singular feminine form of tas
  6. of that; genitive plural feminine form of tas

Lithuanian

Pronoun

to

  1. that; genitive singular masculine of tas

Louisiana Creole French

Etymology

From French tu sg (you, informal).

Pronoun

to

  1. you (singular), thou
    To té paʼlé gra. / To te pale gra.
    You spoke with an accent. (literally: "You had spoken thick.")

Lower Sorbian

Pronunciation

Pronoun

to n

  1. this

Determiner

to

  1. nominative neuter singular of ten
  2. accusative neuter singular of ten

Mauritian Creole

Etymology

From French tu

Pronoun

to (objective twa, formal ou)

  1. you (second-person singular nominative personal pronoun)

See also


Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English , tāhe, from Proto-Germanic *taihwǭ (toe).

Noun

to (plural tos)

  1. (anatomy) toe
Alternative forms
Descendants
  • English: toe
  • Scots: tae

References

Etymology 2

From Old English , ta, te, from Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta.

Particle

to

  1. to (infinitive marker)
Alternative forms
Descendants
  • English: to
  • Scots: tae
References

Preposition

to

  1. to
Alternative forms
Descendants
  • English: to
  • Scots: tae
References

Adverb

to

  1. to
Alternative forms
Descendants
  • English: to
  • Scots: tae
References

Adverb

to

  1. too
Alternative forms
  • two; ta (northern West Midlands)
Descendants
  • English: too
  • Scots: tae
References

Conjunction

to

  1. until
  2. while
  3. so that
References

Etymology 3

Shortening of tone.

Pronoun

to

  1. the one (of two)
Alternative forms

Norwegian Bokmål

Norwegian Bokmål cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : annen

Etymology

From Old Norse tvá, accusative case of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation

Numeral

to

  1. two

Derived terms

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse tvá, accusative case of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation

Numeral

to

  1. two

Derived terms

References


Novial

Pronoun

to

  1. that (which is male)

Related terms


Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do (to). Cognate with Old Saxon (to), Old High German zuo (to), Old Irish do.

Pronunciation

Preposition

  1. to, into
  2. at
  3. (grammar) used to mark the infinitive (supine) of the verb
    drīfenne (to drive)

Adverb

  1. besides
  2. in addition, also, too; moreover
  3. to an excessive degree; too

Descendants

  • Middle English: to
    • English: to, too
    • Scots: tae

Old Saxon

Etymology

Proto-Germanic *tō, whence also Old English and Old High German zuo

Preposition

  1. to

Descendants

  • Middle Low German: to
    • Low German: to

Polish

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *to, from Proto-Indo-European *tód

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /tɔ/
  • (file)

Pronoun

to

  1. (demonstrative) this (nearby, neuter)

Declension

Note: tem and temi are archaic forms

Adverb

to

  1. (adverb) then (in that case)

See also

Further reading

  • to in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Selepet

Noun

to

  1. water

References

  • K. A. McElhanon, Selepet grammar (1972)
  • William A. Foley, The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (1986, →ISBN, page 257

Slovak

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *to.

Pronoun

to

  1. it
  2. that

Related terms


Slovene

Pronunciation

Pronoun

tọ̑

  1. inflection of ta:
    1. accusative singular feminine
    2. nominative/accusative singular neuter

Tututni

Noun

to

  1. (Euchre Creek) water

References

  • Victor Golla, Tututni (Oregon Athapaskan), International Journal of American Linguistics, volume 42:3 (July 1976), pages 217-227

Vietnamese

Etymology

Compare Thai โต (dtoo), Lao ໂຕ (), ᦷᦎ (ṫo).

Pronunciation

Adjective

to (, , , , 𡚡, 𡚢, 𢀱, 𫰅)

  1. big, large
  2. great, considerable
  3. loud

Derived terms

Derived terms

See also


Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *toɣ (covering).

Pronunciation

Noun

to m (plural toeau)

  1. roof

Derived terms

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Westrobothnian

Westrobothnian cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : æænn
    Adverbial : tweifållt
    Multiplier : tofål
    Collective :
    Fractional : haḷv

Etymology 1

From Old Norse tvá, accusative of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Numeral

to (neuter tu or töuw)

  1. two
Alternative forms
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Old Norse (patch of grass).

Noun

to n (defninite toe)

  1. open space in the woods with shrubs or brushwood, valley in the woods

Zazaki

Etymology

Related to Persian تو(to).

Pronoun

to

  1. (informal) you (sg., acc.)