over

See also: över, Över, øver, over-, and över-

English

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 over on Wikipedia

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle English over, from Old English ofer, from Proto-Germanic *uber (over), from Proto-Indo-European *upér, a comparative form of *upo; akin to Dutch over, German ober, über, Danish over, Norwegian over, Swedish över, Icelandic yfir, Faroese yvir, Gothic 𐌿𐍆𐌰𐍂 (ufar), Latin super, Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hupér), Albanian upri (group of peasants), Sanskrit उपरि (upári).

Adjective

over (not comparable)

  1. Discontinued; ended or concluded.
    The show is over.
Usage notes

Not used before a noun.

Derived terms
Translations

Adverb

over (not comparable)

  1. Thoroughly; completely; from beginning to end.
    Let's talk over the project at tomorrow's meeting.
    Let me think that over.
    I'm going to look over our department's expenses.
  2. To an excessive degree; overly.
    • Lua error in Module:quote at line 165: The first parameter (language code) is missing.
      She seemed a placid creature altogether - eminently respectable - perhaps not over intelligent.
  3. From an upright position to being horizontal.
    He tipped the bottle over, and the water came gushing out.
    That building just fell over!
    He bent over to touch his toes.
  4. Horizontally; left to right or right to left.
    Slide the toilet-paper dispenser's door over when one roll is empty in order to reveal the other.
    I moved over to make room for him to sit down.
  5. From one position or state to another.
    Please pass that over to me.
    He came over to our way of thinking on the new project.
    Come over and play!
    I'll bring over a pizza.
  6. Overnight (throughout the night).
    We stayed over at Grandma's.
    Can I sleep over?
  7. (US, usually with do) Again; another time; once more; over again.
    I lost my paper and I had to do the entire assignment over.
  8. (procedure word, military) a procedure word meaning that a station is finished transmitting and is expecting a response.
    Bravo Six, this is Bravo Six Four. Stand by for ten mike report one dash three, over.
    Bravo Six Four, this is Bravo Six Actual. Send your traffic, over.
Translations

Noun

over (plural overs)

  1. (cricket) A set of six legal balls bowled.
  2. Any surplus amount of money, goods delivered, etc.
    • 2008, G. Puttick, Sandy van Esch, The Principles and Practice of Auditing (page 609)
      ...standard cash count forms used to record the count and any overs or unders.
Translations

Preposition

over

  1. Physical positioning.
    1. On top of; above; higher than; further up.
      Hold the sign up over your head.   climb up the ladder and look over [the roof]
    2. Across or spanning.
      There is a bridge over the river.
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        My hopes wa'n't disappointed. I never saw clams thicker than they was along them inshore flats. I filled my dreener in no time, and then it come to me that 'twouldn't be a bad idee to get a lot more, take 'em with me to Wellmouth, and peddle 'em out. Clams was fairly scarce over that side of the bay and ought to fetch a fair price.
      • 1918, Dora Sigerson Shorter, Sick I Am and Sorrowful
        If I saw the wild geese fly over the dark lakes of Kerry...
      • Template:quote-magazine
    3. In such a way as to cover.
      drape the fabric over the table;  there is a roof over the house
    4. From one physical position to another via an obstacle that must be traversed vertically, first upwards and then downwards.
      The dog jumped over the fence.
      I'll go over [the fence] first and then help you.
      Let's walk over the hill to get there.
  2. By comparison.
    1. More than; to a greater degree.
      I prefer the purple over the pink.
    2. Beyond; past; exceeding; too much or too far.
      I think I’m over my limit for calories for today.
    3. (in certain collocations) As compared to.
      Sales are down this quarter over last.
  3. (mathematics) Divided by.
    four over two equals two over one
  4. (poker) Separates the three of a kind from the pair in a full house.
    9♦9♠9♣6♥6♠ = nines over sixes
  5. Finished with; done with; from one state to another via a hindrance that must be solved or defeated; or via a third state that represents a significant difference from the first two.
    We got over the engineering problems and the prototype works great.
    I am over my cold and feel great again.
    I know the referee made a bad call, but you have to get over it [your annoyance with the referee's decision].
    She is finally over [the distress of] losing her job.
    He is finally over his [distress over the loss of the relationship with his] ex-girlfriend.
  6. While using, especially while consuming.
    • 1990, Seymour Chatman, Coming to Terms, Cornell, →ISBN, page 100[1]:
      Six diners in business clothes—five attractive young women and a balding middle-aged man—relax over cigarettes.
    • 1998, Marian Swerdlow, Underground Woman, Temple, →ISBN, page 88 [2]:
      Sunday had been my favorite day at Woodlawn. A long W.A.A. [="work as assigned" period], having coffee and croissants with Mark over the Sunday Times.
    • 2009, Sara Pennypacker, The Great Egyptian Grave Robbery, Scholastic, →ISBN, page 79:
      Over meatloaf and mashed potatoes (being careful not to talk with his mouth full), Stanley told about his adventure.
  7. Concerning or regarding.
    The two boys had a fight over whose girlfriend was the best.
  8. Above, implying superiority after a contest; in spite of; notwithstanding.
    We triumphed over difficulties.
    The bill was passed over the veto.
    It was a fine victory over their opponents.
Usage notes

When used in the context of "from one location to another", over implies that the two places are at approximately the same height or the height difference is not relevant. For example, if two offices are on the same floor of a building, an office worker might say I'll bring that over for you, while if the offices were on different floors, the sentence would likely be I'll bring that up [down] for you. However, distances are not constrained, e.g. He came over from England last year and now lives in Los Angeles or I moved the stapler over to the other side of my desk.

Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Interjection

over

  1. In radio communications: end of sentence, ready to receive reply.
    How do you receive? Over!
Related terms
Translations

References

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The semantic network for over", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Etymology 2

From Middle English over (riverbank, seashore, brink), from Old English ōfer (riverbank, seashore, brink, edge, margin, border), from Proto-Germanic *ōferaz. Cognate with Dutch oever (riverbank, shore), German Ufer (shore, shoreline, riverbank), Low German Över (shore, riverbank).

Noun

over (plural overs)

  1. (rare, dialectal or obsolete) A shore, riverbank.
    The sea's over.
    • (Can we date this quote?)Lua error in Module:utilities at line 138: Language code has not been specified. Please pass parameter 1 to the template. (Mannyng's Chronicle)
      Cassibola was ready at Dover, & renged (encamped) his men by the over.
Usage notes

Now mostly found in place names, as in Westover or Overton, Hampshire (a town built on the River Test). Fell out of use in the 16th century.

References

Anagrams


Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse yfir.

Preposition

over

  1. above
    Skyer hænger over byen.
    Clouds hang above the city.
  2. past an hour
    Klokken er fjorten minutter over sytten.
    It's fourteen minutes past five p.m.

Etymology 2

From Old Norse ofar.

Adverb

over

  1. across
    Han kom over grænsen.
    He got across the border.
  2. asunder; in two
    Vil du skære bollen over?
    Would you cut the bun in two?

Etymology 3

Shortening of overkrydder.

Noun

over c (singular definite overen, plural indefinite overe)

  1. (informal) The upper curved portion of a roll or a similar food.
    Jeg foretrækker overen.
    I prefer the top slice.
Inflection
Antonyms
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Borrowed from English over.

Noun

over c (singular definite overen, plural indefinite overe or overs)

  1. (cricket) A set of six legal balls bowled, an over.
Inflection

References


Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch over, from Old Dutch *ovar, from Proto-Germanic *uber, from Proto-Indo-European *upér, from *upo. Compare German ober, English over.

Pronunciation

Adverb

over

  1. over, above
  2. (postpositional) over (implying motion)
    Kijk uit, er steekt een hond de straat over.
    Look out, a dog is crossing over the street.
  3. remaining, left over
    Na het feest was er bijna geen eten meer over.
    After the party there was barely any food remaining.
  4. (in compounds) excessively, more than
  5. passing by, going away
    De pijn gaat weer over.
    The pain is going away again.

Antonyms

Derived terms

Preposition

Template:nl-prep

  1. over
  2. about, concerning

Inflection

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: oor

Anagrams


Latin

Verb

over


Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch over, from Proto-Germanic *uber.

Pronunciation

Preposition

ōver

  1. over, above
    Antonym: onder
  2. across
  3. towards
  4. during
  5. ago, some duration in the past
  6. after, following (a duration)
  7. about, concerning
  8. due to, because of

Descendants

Adverb

ōver

  1. over
  2. across, on the other side
  3. plenty, more than enough
  4. used up, finished
  5. once again

Descendants

Further reading


Middle Low German

Etymology

From Old Saxon ovar, from Proto-Germanic *uber, and Old Saxon *uvir from Proto-Germanic *ubiri.

Pronunciation

Preposition

ōver or ȫver

  1. (accusative) across, moving through or over something
    over dat rode mêr - across the Red Sea
  2. (accusative) across, moving to the other side of something
  3. (accusative) in, across, describing the spread of something
    over alle lant - all across the lands / in every land
  4. (dative) across, situated on the other side of
    over deme watere - across the water
  5. (dative) while, over the duration of
    over deme werke begripen - while working on something
  6. (dative) over, at, on, on top of, describing where something is situated; does not mean above
    over deme dische - at the table

Usage notes

It is not clear whether the umlaut was connected with semantic differences.

Alternative forms

Antonyms

Adverb

ōver or ȫver

  1. across, on the other side
  2. while
  3. on top of, additionally
  4. over (finished, ceased)

Usage notes

It is not clear whether the umlaut was connected with semantic differences.

Alternative forms

Antonyms


Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse yfir

Pronunciation

(deprecated use of |lang= parameter)
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Preposition

over

  1. above
  2. past
  3. over; more than

Adverb

over

  1. over
  2. across

Derived terms

Template:der3-u

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse yfir

Pronunciation

Preposition

over

  1. above
  2. past
  3. over; more than

Adverb

over

  1. over
  2. across

Derived terms

Template:der3-u

References