is

English

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Etymology 1

From Middle English is, from Old English is, from Proto-Germanic *isti (a form of Proto-Germanic *wesaną (to be)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (is). Cognate with West Frisian is (is), Dutch is (is), German ist (is), Old Swedish is (is). The paradigm of "to be" has been since the time of Proto-Germanic a synthesis of four originally distinct verb stems. The infinitive form "to be" is from *bʰuH- (to become). The forms is and am are derived from *h₁es- (to be) whereas the form are comes from *iraną (to rise, be quick, become active). Lastly, the past forms starting with "w-" such as was and were are from *h₂wes- (to dwell; reside).

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. Third-person singular simple present indicative form of be
    He is a doctor. He retired some time ago.
    Should he do the task, it is vital that you follow him.
Alternative forms

Derived terms

Quotations
  • For quotations of use of this term, see [[Citations:is#Lua error in Module:languages at line 451: The language code "{{{1}}}" is not valid.|Citations:is]].

Synonyms

Translations

See also

Etymology 2

i +‎ -s.

Pronunciation

Noun

is

  1. remember to dot your i's
Usage notes
  • There is some difference of opinion regarding the use of apostrophes in the pluralization of references to letters as symbols. New Fowler's Modern English Usage, after noting that the usage has changed, states on page 602 that "after letters an apostrophe is obligatory." The 15th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style states in paragraph 7.16, "To avoid confusion, lowercase letters ... form the plural with an apostrophe and an s". The Oxford Style Manual on page 116 advocates the use of common sense.

Anagrams


Afrikaans

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. am, are, is (present tense, all persons, plural and singular of wees, to be)
  2. Forms the perfect passive voice when followed by a past participle

Bagusa

Noun

is

  1. woman

References


Catalan

Noun

is


Cimbrian

Pronoun

is

  1. (Sette Comuni)
    (deprecated use of |lang= parameter) Alternative form of es (it)

References

“is” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo


Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Pronunciation

Noun

is c (singular definite isen, plural indefinite is)

  1. (uncountable) ice (water in frozen form)
  2. (uncountable) ice, ice cream (dessert, not necessarily containing cream)
  3. (countable) ice, ice cream (ice dessert on a stick or in a wafer cone)

Inflection


Dutch

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of zijn; is, equals
    Twaalf min drie is negentwelve minus three equals nine

Adverb

is

  1. (informal, dialect)

Anagrams


Gothic

Romanization

is

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐍃

Hungarian

Etymology

Doublet of és (and).

Pronunciation

Adverb

is (not comparable)

  1. also, too, as well
    Synonyms: szintén, ugyancsak, úgyszintén, éppúgy, szintúgy (formal; the others are relatively literary in style)
    Én is szeretem a csokit.I, too, like chocolate (aside from other people).
    (Én) a csokit is szeretem.I also like chocolate (aside from other things).
  2. even, up to, as much as, as long as
    Három óráig is tarthat a műtétThe operation may even take three hours.
  3. (after an interrogative word) again (used in a question to ask something one has forgotten)
    Hogy is hívják?What's that called, again?

Derived terms

(Compound words):

(Expressions):

See also


Irish

Etymology 1

From agus.

Pronunciation

Conjunction

is

  1. (deprecated use of |lang= parameter) reduced form of agus (and; as)
    Dia is Muire duit.
    Hello to you, too. (lit. God and Virgin Mary to you.)
    • 1899, Franz Nikolaus Finck, Die araner mundart, Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, vol. II, p. 1:
      wil nə fatī xō mŭȧ, s dūŕc šē?
      conventional orthography: An bhfuil na fataí chomh maith is dúirt sé?
      Are the potatoes as good as he said?
    • 1899, Franz Nikolaus Finck, Die araner mundart, Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, vol. II, p. 1:
      ə ʒēĺǵə, l̄aurīr ə gūǵə mūn, ńī h-ønn̥̄ ī s ə ʒēlgə š agń̥ə
      conventional orthography: An Ghaeilge a labhraíthear i gCúige Mumhan, ní hionann í is an Ghaeilge seo againne.
      The Irish used in Munster isn’t the same as our Irish.

Etymology 2

From Old Irish is (is), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be).

Pronunciation

Particle

is

  1. Present/future realis copula form
    Is múinteoir é Dónall.Dónall is a teacher.
    (definition: predicate is indefinite)
    Is é Dónall an múinteoir.Dónall is the teacher.
    (identification: predicate is definite)
    Is féidir liom snámh.I can swim.
    (idiomatic noun predicate)
    Is maith liom tae.I like tea.
    (idiomatic adjective predicate)
    Is mise a chonaic é.I'm the one who saw him.
    (compare Hiberno-English "'Tis I who saw him"; cleft sentence)
    Is é Dónall atá ina mhúinteoir.It's Dónall who is a teacher.
    (cleft sentence)
  2. Used to introduce the comparative/superlative form of adjectives
    an buachaill isthe bigger boy; the biggest boy
    Is mó an buachaill ná Séamas.
    The boy is bigger than James.
    Is é Séamas an buachaill is mó in Éirinn!
    James is the biggest boy in Ireland! (lit. "It is James (who is) the boy (who) is biggest in Ireland")
Usage notes
  • Used in the present and future for identification or definition of a subject as the person/object identified in the predicate of the sentence. Sometimes used with noun or adjective predicates, especially in certain fixed idiomatic phrases. Used to introduce cleft sentences, which are extremely common in Irish. It is not a verb.
  • The copula does not exist in the imperative and does not have a nominal form analogous to the verbal noun. The phrase i do (literally “be in your”) is used as the imperative instead (e.g. Bí i d’fhear! – “Be a man!” (lit. “Be in your man!”)), and equivalent non-copular nominal constructions must be used in place of their hypothetical copular equivalents: bheith ábalta (“to be able”, in place of the non-existent nominal form of is féidir), bheith ag iarraidh (“to want”, in place of the non-existent nominal form of is mian), bheith ina (“to be”, as with the imperative), etc.
  • In comparative/superlative formations, is is strictly speaking the relative of the copula, hence an buachaill is mó literally means "the boy who is biggest", i.e. "the biggest boy". The thing compared is introduced by (than).
Related terms

Kwerba

Noun

is

  1. woman

References


Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *is, from Proto-Indo-European *éy.

Pronunciation

Determiner

is (feminine ea, neuter id); demonstrative pronoun

  1. (Third-person singular pronoun) he, it (referring to masculine nouns); (demonstrative) this, that
    Is mihi rescripsit.
    He wrote back to me.
    Is amicus est vir bonus.
    This friend is a good man.
Declension

Demonstrative pronoun.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative is ea id
eae ea
Genitive eius
ejus
eōrum eārum eōrum
Dative eīs
iīs
Accusative eum eam id eōs eās ea
Ablative eīs
iīs
Derived terms
Related terms

See also

Etymology 2

Inflected form of (go).

Pronunciation

Verb

īs

  1. second-person singular present active indicative of eo

References

  • is in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to sum up..: ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciam
    • (ambiguous) those to whom we owe our being: ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximus
    • (ambiguous) from youth up: a puero (is), a parvo (is), a parvulo (is)
    • (ambiguous) he feels better: melius ei factum est
    • (ambiguous) Fortune's favourite: is, quem fortuna complexa est
    • (ambiguous) to sully one's fair fame: vitae splendori(em) maculas(is) aspergere
    • (ambiguous) no word escaped him: nullum verbum ex ore eius excidit (or simply ei)
    • (ambiguous) he is in a suspicious mood: suspicio ei penitus inhaeret
    • (ambiguous) the debtor: debitor, or is qui debet
    • (ambiguous) the creditor: creditor, or is cui debeo
  • is in The Perseus Project (1999) Perseus Encyclopedia[2]
  • is in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • is in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly

Middle Dutch

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of wēsen

Middle English

Etymology 1

Determiner

is

Pronoun

is

References

Etymology 2

Pronoun

is

References

Etymology 3

From Old English īs, from Proto-Germanic *īsą; from Proto-Indo-European *h₁éyHsom, derivative of *h₁eyH-.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

is (uncountable)

  1. ice (frozen water):
    1. A layer of frozen water as a surface.
    2. (rare) A individual portion of ice.
  2. (rare, figuratively) That which is short-lived like ice.
  3. (rare) icy conditions
Derived terms
Descendants
  • English: ice
  • Scots: ice
References

Etymology 4

From Old English is, third-person present singular of wesan (to be), from Proto-Germanic *isti, third-person present singular of *wesaną (to be, become), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Verb

is

  1. Third-person singular present indicative form of been
Descendants
  • English: is, 's
  • Scots: is

Navajo

Interjection

is

  1. as if, as if it were true, it could be, is it really?, what do you mean by that?, so you say expressing surprise

Usage notes

Usually spelled with the final letter repeated: iss, isss, issss.

Alternative forms


Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Noun

is m (definite singular isen, indefinite plural is or iser, definite plural isene)

  1. (uncountable) ice
  2. (countable) ice cream

Synonyms

Derived terms

References


Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-. Akin to English ice.

Pronunciation

Noun

is m (definite singular isen, indefinite plural isar, definite plural isane)

  1. ice
  2. ice cream

Synonyms

Derived terms

References


Nyishi

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Tani *si, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *si.

Noun

is

  1. water

References

  • P. T. Abraham (2005) A Grammar of Nyishi Language[3], Delhi: Farsight Publishers and Distributors

Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-, *ey-, *ī- (ice, frost). Cognate with Old Frisian īs (West Frisian iis), Old Saxon īs (Low German Ies), Dutch ijs, Old High German īs (German Eis), Old Norse íss (Danish and Swedish is), Gothic 𐌴𐌹𐍃 (eis). There are parallels in many Iranian languages, apparently from the same Indo-European root: Avestan 𐬀𐬉𐬑𐬀(aēxa-, frost, ice), Persian یخ(yakh), Pashto جح(jaḥ), Ossetian их (ix).

Pronunciation

Noun

īs n

  1. ice
    Hit is swā ċeald þæt wæter sōna tō īse ġefrīest.
    It's so cold that water immediately freezes to ice.
    • the Legend of St Andrew
      Ofer ēastrēamas īs bryċġode.
      The ice formed a bridge over the streams.
  2. The runic character (/i/ or /i:/)

Declension

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Middle English: is, ise, yes, yce, yys, ys, ijs, yse, ysz, hyse, hyys, ice, isse, ysse, yis
    • English: ice
    • Scots: ice

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-. Compare Old Saxon īs, Old English īs, Old Norse íss, Gothic 𐌴𐌹𐍃 (eis).

Noun

īs

  1. ice

Descendants

  • Middle High German: īs
    • Alemannic German: Iis, Is, Isch
      Alsatian: Iis (in the whole Alemannic Alsace, whereas it is "Eis" in Northernmost Alsace, influenced by Südfränkrich),
      Walser: isch, éisch
    • Bavarian: ais
      Cimbrian: àis
      Mòcheno: ais
    • Central Franconian: Eis, Ies
    • German: Eis
    • Luxembourgish: Äis
    • Rhine Franconian:
      Pennsylvania German: Eis
    • Vilamovian: ajs
    • Yiddish: אײַז(ayz)

Old Irish

Etymology

The lemma is itself is from Proto-Celtic *esti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti; other forms are from either *h₁es- or *bʰuH-.

Verb

is

  1. to be
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 14d26
      Is i persin Crist da·gníu-sa sin.
      It is in the person of Christ that I do that.

Usage notes

This is the so-called "copula", which is distinct from the "substantive verb" at·tá. The copula is used with noun predicates and to introduce a cleft sentence.

Conjugation

See {{sga-conj-is}} for the complete conjugation.

Synonyms

Derived terms

  • cesu (although... is)
  • condid (so that... is)
  • in (is... ?)
  • masu (if... is)
  • (is not)

Descendants

  • Irish: is
  • Manx: s’
  • Scottish Gaelic: is

Further reading


Old Saxon

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *it.

Pronoun

is (is)

  1. his, its
Declension

Etymology 2

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular present indicative of wesan

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH- (ice, frost). Cognate with Old Frisian īs (West Frisian iis), Old English īs (English ice), Dutch ijs, Old High German īs (German Eis), Old Norse íss (Danish and Swedish is), Gothic 𐌴𐌹𐍃 (eis).

Noun

īs n

  1. ice
  2. The runic character (/i/ or /i:/)
Declension


Descendants
  • Middle Low German: îs
    • Low German:
      • German Low German: Ies
        • Plautdietsch: Iess

Portuguese

Pronunciation

Noun

is

    • 2003, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e a Ordem da Fênix, Rocco, page 411:
      Se você pôs os pingos nos is e cortou os tês então pode fazer o que quiser!
      If you've dotted your I's and crossed your T's, then you can do whatever you want!

Scots

Adverb

is (not comparable)

  1. (South Scots) as

Synonyms

Conjunction

is

  1. (South Scots) as

Synonyms

Pronoun

is (personal, non-emphatic)

  1. (South Scots) me

See also

  • A
  • mei (emphatic variant)

Verb

is

  1. third-person singular simple present indicative form of be

See also


Scottish Gaelic

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

From Old Irish ocus (and)

Conjunction

is

  1. and

Synonyms

Etymology 2

From Old Irish is, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be).

Verb

is

  1. am, are, is

Usage notes

  • This defective verb doesn't have the infinitive, future tense, subjunctive or conditional moods.
  • The dependent form, used after particles, is e.
  • Is is used when linking the subject of a sentence with an object ("somebody is somebody", "somebody is something", "something is something"), otherwise forms of the verb bi are used:
    Is mise Dòmhnall.I am Donald.
    Tha mise ann an taigh-seinnse.I am in a pub.

Derived terms


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse íss, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Pronunciation

Noun

is c

  1. (uncountable) Ice; frozen water.
  2. (countable) Ice; a sheet of ice lying on a body of water.

Declension

Declension of is 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative is isen isar isarna
Genitive is isens isars isarnas

Related terms

References


Tok Pisin

Etymology

From English East.

Noun

is

  1. East

Turkish

Noun

is (definite accusative isi, plural isler)

  1. soot
  2. fume (solid deposit)
  3. kohl

Declension

Inflection
Nominative is
Definite accusative isi
Singular Plural
Nominative is isler
Definite accusative isi isleri
Dative ise islere
Locative iste islerde
Ablative isten islerden
Genitive isin islerin
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular isim islerim
2nd singular isin islerin
3rd singular isi isleri
1st plural isimiz islerimiz
2nd plural isiniz isleriniz
3rd plural isleri isleri

Volapük

Adverb

is

  1. here